After about seven months of intermittent work on my astronaut application, I finally submitted it to NASA. All that's left is to drop my university transcripts in the mail.
The resume took up the bulk of my time and effort. The process of getting it to NASA is 2-staged: 1) construct resume in the USAJOBS Resume Builder and apply to position, 2) resume is parsed by NASA STARS system and reformatted. This means that when formatting or other changes are observed in the NASA version, one has to go back to USAJOBS, fix it, and re-apply. Plus, applicants must fill out additional forms for medical history, references, and flight experience.